International Live Conference on
July 29, 2023
Neuropsychological functions of COVID-19 patients
Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects of Niacin in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats
Neuronal and Oligodendroglial Exosomal a-Synuclein distinguishes Parkinson’s disease From Multiple System Atrophy
Neuropsychological functions of COVID-19 patients
Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects of Niacin in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.
Objectives: Niacin (nicotinic acid or vitamin B₃) is a water-soluble vitamin. In this study, it was aimed to examine the possible effects of niacin on inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptotic processes observed after traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Methods: Wistar albino male rats were randomly divided into control (n=9), TBI (n=9), TBI +niacin (500 mg/kg; n=7) groups. TBI was performed under anesthesia by dropping a 300 g weight from a height of 1 meter onto the skull. All rats were decapitated at 24 hours of trauma. Y-maze and object recognition tests were performed to evaluate hippocampal functions, as well as neurological examination and tail suspension test before and 24 hour after TBI. Luminol and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence levels were measured. Tissue cytokine and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were measured by ELISA method. In addition, histopathological damage was scored in brain tissue.
Results: After TBI, luminol (p<0.001) and lucigenin (p<0.001) enhanced chemiluminescence levels were increased, and with niacin treatment their levels were decreased (p<0.01-p<0.001). An increased score was obtained with trauma in the tail suspension test (p<0.01), showing depressive behavior. The number of entries to arms in Y-maze test were decreased in trauma group compared to pre-traumatic values (p<0.01). In object recognition test, discrimination (p<0.05) and recognition indices (p<0.05) were decreased with trauma. Niacin treatment did not change the outcomes in behavioral tests. Among the anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 levels were decreased with trauma (p<0.05) and increased with niacin treatment (p<0.05). PAI-1 levels were increased with trauma (p<0.05) and decreased with niacin treatment (p<0.01). The histological damage score (p<0.001) was increased with trauma, and decreased with niacin treatment in the cortex (p<0.05) and hippocampal dentate gyrus region (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Niacin treatment after TBI caused a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen derivatives, which were increased with trauma along with an elevation in the anti- inflammatory IL-10 level, which was decreased with trauma. In addition, niacin treatment ameliorated the histopathologically evident damage caused by trauma.
Dr. Pınar Kuru Bektaşoğlu
ISivas Numune Hospital
Craniopharyngioma Removal Through Endoscopic Assisted Microscopic Surgery
One to three percent of all cerebral tumours are benign tumours called craniopharyngiomas, which come in two varieties: the childhood type, which affects children between the ages of 5 and 10, and the adult form, which affects patients between the ages of 50 and 60. The initial symptoms include visual, endocrine, hypothalamic, neurological, and neurophysiological manifestations, and they progress over time. The preferred course of action is surgery. Adjuvant therapies include included intra tumoral injection of chemotherapy medicines, gamma knife, and postoperative radiotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the role of endoscopy in assisting microscopic surgical removal of craniopharyngioma. Eleven patients underwent surgery. Using the subfrontal technique and a microscope, all procedures were carried out. After the procedure, the endoscope was used to look for any remaining tumour in the subchiasmatic and retrochiasmatic regions as well as to see the posterior portion of the tumour that the microscope couldn't see. This allowed the surgeon to determine whether the tumour was adherent to the hypothalamus and whether it should be removed. There were eleven instances in the study, four of which were craniopharyngiomas of the infancy variety and seven of the adult kind. In six cases, total removal was accomplished (five cases of adulthood type). In five patients, an oumaya reservoir was placed, while five other cases required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Only two of the individuals experienced persistent diabetes insipidus; the rest all experienced postoperative transient diabetes insipidus. Pituitary hypofunction was observed in three individuals before to surgery, and two more cases experienced postoperative pituitary hypofunction, both of which required hormone replacement therapy. Because of its connections to the optic nerve, hypothalamus, and vascular system produced by Willis circle and its perforating branches, the craniopharyngioma is one of the most complex and problematic tumours for neurosurgeons to treat. After the removal of the craniopharyngioma under the microscope, endoscopy plays a part in decision-making.
Dr. Tshetiz Dahal
Lugansk State Medical University
Neuronal and Oligodendroglial Exosomal a-Synuclein distinguishes Parkinson’s disease From Multiple System Atrophy.
It's easy. Synucleinopathies are group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates in the brain. In two of the three major synucleinopathies, Parkinson’s disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), α-syn accumulates in intra-neuronal Lewy bodies, whereas in the third, multiple system atrophy (MSA) α-syn deposits primarily as glial cytoplasmic inclusions in oligodendrocytes. To date, the diagnosis of these disorders typically is made using clinical evaluation of symptoms. However, the overlapping complex clinical symptoms, particularly during early disease stages, make the actual disease identification difficult and a certain diagnosis can be achieved only post mortem. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed by most cell types, which carry proteins, lipids and nucleic acids that represent the parent cells and therefore, provide a rich source of biomarkers. Exosomes represents an important mode of intercellular communication by delivering various biological materials and signals among cells and recent studies revealed that exosomes were involved in inter-neuronal communication and α-syn, shown to transfer via exosomes among different brain cells, seeded aggregation and induced neurodegeneration. Our studies have demonstrated the capability of blood-derived brain exosomes as a potential window into pathologic processes in the brain, establishing a platform for biomarker identification in neurological disorders like MSA.
Neuroimmunology, Neurological Infections and Neurosurgery in various mental disorders.
Neuroimmunology is an actively emerging branch of neuroscience and immunology which explores the interaction of cytokines, chemokines, interleukins, and other inflammatory mediators with the neurons of the nervous system. Central nervous system is linked with several neurologic and neurodegenerative diseases like Multiple Sclerosis, Transverse myelitis, Neuromyelitis optica etc which can be explained by modern advances in neuroimmunology. Viruses and microorganisms invade the body which infects various organs which can lead to mild to serious problems. Neurological infections occur when these viruses and organisms invade the nervous system. Neurological infections consist of a large variety of conditions that invade and affect the nervous system. Despite advances in therapy and the development of early detection techniques, many of these conditions can cause severe, chronic and even life threatening problems for patients affected by them.
Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. In recent times, new insights and requirements in terms of knowledge and practice, sub-specialisation among consultants and use of multidisciplinary t eams of neurosurgeons, radiologists, anaesthesiologists, and pathologists are involved to tackle neurological problems. In recent years, newer advanced technologies have expanded and redefined the discipline of neurosurgery.
Narendra Singh & Ruchita Karmakar
Amity Institute Of Biotechnology & Nanotechnology, Kolkata
Amity University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Neuropsychological functions of COVID-19 patients
A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) currently led to previously unknown COVID-19 pandemic. The clinical profile of
COVID-19 infection, ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and/or subsequent multiorgan failure, (Pascarella, et al.,2020), myalgia and fatigue. In addition to the lungs, COVID-19 may cause damage to many systems such as the heart, the kidneys, the liver, and the brain, as well as blood and the immune system (Robba, et al., 2020). Studies describe patients that suffer from acute central nervous system symptoms (CNS) in individuals affected by COVID-19 such as inflammatory CNS syndromes encephalitis, cerebrovascular or confusion/altered mental state, headache, dizziness, impaired consciousness, ataxia, acute cerebrovascular disease, and epilepsy, sensory-related symptoms hypogeusia, hyposmia. It is reported by studies that course of the infection is mild or asymptomatic in about 80–90% of cases. Symptoms from CNS are more common in older patients and those who have more underlying medical diseases with vascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes or obesity (Li et al., 2020) hypertension, and to be less likely to show the most typical symptoms, such as fever and dry cough. (Mao et al., 2020). These variety of symptoms have an important social impact on patients, families, health care professionals and society. It is important that healthcare costs to be reduced leading to recovered patients’ optimal neurocognitive functioning. Permanent cognitive dysfunction influences independent living. Cognitive decline is an important problem for the patient and family, and also for the community. It causes major financial burden of medical costs to the family and health services and impacts independent living and daily activities of patients.
Dr. Kalliopi Megari
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki